The treatment of colorectal cancer depends on the stage of the cancer. The location of the tumor, its size, the extent of its spread and the general condition of the patient all influence the choice of treatment.
Surgery is the most common carcinoma of the colon and rectum cancer treatment. The aim of surgery is to remove part of the bowel with tumor and the surrounding healthy tissue from the lymph node. The purpose of removing healthy tissue is to eliminate all individual cancer cells. Surgery is used either alone or in combination with radiation and chemotherapy.
Radiation therapy is high-energy ionizing radiation that is produced in a separate radiation therapy device. Radiation therapy aims to kill cancer cells and reduce the tumor with X-rays.
Radiation therapy is a treatment that only affects the cancer cells in the treated area. Treatment is usually only used to treat rectal cancer, either before or after surgery. Radiation therapy is also used if it has not been possible to remove the tumor with surgery. Often, radiotherapy is also associated with chemotherapy.
Cytotoxic drugs are drugs used to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy for colorectal cancer usually consists of several concomitant medications. This form of treatment is called combination therapy. Combination medication is used because different drugs damage or kill cancer cells in different ways. Due to the interaction of drugs, more cancer cells can be destroyed than with individual drugs.
Chemotherapy is given as a treatment to prevent the recurrence of colon or rectal cancer. Chemotherapy is also used to treat advanced bowel cancer to reduce the tumor, reduce symptoms, and slow the progression of the disease.